First appearance of Turkomans in the Iraqi territory takes place with 2000 Turks brought to Basra by Ubeydullah bin Ziyad, one of Ommiades ruler in 54 Hegira Calendar.
The invasion of Iraq by Tugrul Bey, the great Seljukian ruler, in 1055 and delivering of the sermon namely hutbe on Friday dated 15 Dec, 1055 in Baghdad marked the beginning of the Turkish sovereignty that will continue by the end of 1918 covering nearly 9 centuries. Calling Iraqi Turkmen's as " Turkomans " begins with Seljuks. Historians agree that this terminology certainly does not specify something different from Turkish ancestors but the Muslim Oguz Turks are called as " Turkomans ".
After the collapse of the great Seljuk Empire, some Turkish Lordliness namely Zeynettin Kucukogullari (1144 - 1233) in Arbil, Atabeyler in Mosul, and Kipcakogullari in Kirkuk were established. Arbil, from 1190 to 1233 with the leadership of Muzaffereddin Gokboru has lived its glorious period. So, various Turkish rulers have ruled the area until 1514.
Yavuz Sultan Selim, after his Tebriz journey dated Sept16, 1514 conquested the Northern Iraq in 1515 and annexed it to the Ottoman Empire. 19 years later, Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent went to Baghdad and put an end to Safevi sovereignty on Nov 28, 1534. So all Iraqi territory has become a principality. This period is accepted as the settlement of Turkomans in Iraq.
Nadir Shah had besieged Kirkuk for some period in 1732 and in 1734, he came back so, Kirkuk becomes Safevi territory. Kirkuk, with the treaty of 1746 had been given back to the Ottoman Empire and the area had stayed under the rule of Ottoman Empire until the World War-I. However, following the English invasion of Baghdad on March 11, 1917 HÃƒÆ’Ã‚Â¼seyin, Sheriff of Mecca, was forced to rebel by English so, central and southern part of Iraq were left to England and Syria and Mosul were left to France.
3 days later from Mondros Treaty dated October 30, 1918 which lasted only 4 days, on November 2, 1918 English General wanted Ali Ihsan Pasha who was the commander of 6th Army to give back the said area so, 6 days later, on November 8, 1918, Mosul became an English territory. Afterwards in October 10, 1922 Lozan Peace Conference convened and signed in July 24, 1923. 3 years later in June 5, 1926 in Ankara, among England, Iraq and Turkey a " Treaty of Border and good neighborship " was signed however, unfortunately there was no legal guarantee for Iraqi Turkomans in both treaty.
In December 14, 1927, England gave independence to Iraq Kingship under the rule of King Faysal and the Kingship period continued until July 14, 1958 and came to an end with the overthrown of King Faysal II by General Abdulkerim Kasim and proclamation of Republic. After the five year sovereignty of Abdulsalam Muhammad ARIF and his brother Abdurrahman M.ARIF who took the leadership by overthrowing AbdÃƒÆ’Ã‚Â¼lkerim KASIM in February 8,1963, the Socialist Arab Baath Party which is on the power right now, with a coup became the ruling party under the leadership of General Ahmet Hasan Al-BakÃƒâ€žÃ‚Â±r in July 17,1968.
While the Baath regime trying to maintain a just dominance in the country in the first two years, Saddam Hussein who ruled behind the closed doors till 1979 has refrained to be number one unless he was sure that his teachings supported thoroughly. However, he, in July 16,1979, when he was the deputy head of the state replaced AL-Bakir took the control of the country and almost one year later forced Iraq to make war with Iran and forced Turkoman soldiers to fight on the very front because of his hatred to Turks. Almost 2 years later after the cease-fire signed on August 8, 1988 he invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990 and caused the outbreak of Gulf War. US and its allies with the permission of UN dated Jan 16,17,1991 started the war took back Kuwait from Iraq.
Population of Turkomans, for various reasons, is kept in secret by Iraqi administration. In another words the population of Turkomans, because of the assimilation policy of the government, are not defined by a fair and impartial census as contrast to other ethnic groups.
Census has been held only five times in Iraq up to now. The population of Kirkuk as of 1947 is 286.005 (5.9 % of the total population), as off 1957 is 388.939 (6%of total population), as of 1965 is 473.626 (5.8 % of the total population), as of 1977 is 495.425 (4%of the total population) (between the years 1975-1977, the square Kirkuk is reduced to 9.426 from 19.543 km) as of 1981 according to the statistical assumptions of Iraq is 567.957 (4.15 % of the total population).
As of census held on October 17, 1987 the general population is 16 million. Up to now all statistical information consist of false figures by the wish of Iraqi authorities. According to that information, Iraqi Turkmans are 2% of the total population. There fore, foreign researchers in their books especially in their encyclopaedias generally use this information. The most interesting thing is that the plots on the population of Turkomans are not calculated well. Because the things you are trying to hide are something alive and seen obviously. So, assertions of the leadership can be denied with a basic mathematical way from the view of the released information of Iraqi Planning Department.
According to the statistical assumptions of the year 1981 the total population of the cities where Turkmans are living is 3.467.269 including Mosul with 1.227.215, Salah Al-Deen with 402.067, Kirkuk with 567.957, Diala with 637.778 and lastly Arbil with 632.252.
According to the same assumptions the total population of Iraq is 13.669.689.
As for the sources published in Iraq it is claimed that Turkman population is 2%. However, 273.393 Turkmans live in the area and the total population is 3.467.269. That means the percentage is 7.88. That is, in the places where Turkmans live only 8 of 100 people are Turkmans. But, when you visit the region you will see that the figures are absolutely false. Even in some cities the contrary of this more correct and logical.
In addition to this, till the year 1960, it was known that 95% of Kirkuk population as Turkmans. How ever because of the assimilation policy of Arabs thousands of Arabic families are being settled in Kirkuk. Another reason why Kurds settled in Kirkuk is destroying of nearby villages. So, Turkman majority in Kirkuk is destroying of nearby villages. So, Turkman majority in Kirkuk in the years of 80's has declined from 95% to 75%. If we take the average proportion of the population of Kirkuk according to the census between 1947-1987 to Iraqi population we find 5.19 %. When it is compared with the total population as of 1987, the population of Kirkuk must be 830.400. If we try to find the estimated Turkman population according to 75% we find 622.800. If it is calculated according to % 4.15 which is found from 1981 statistical datum's the population is 664.000; according to 75 % it is 498.000 so, the insistence of Iraq on 2%, as it is seen above assessment is absolutely wrong not only for the whole area also even for Kirkuk.
We can support our claim statistically. In the census held during Kingship in 1957 it was declared that 500.000 Turkomans have been living, and in 1959 the population according to the census was 567.000. The annual population increase in Iraq is % 3.296. When the year 1959 is taken as base the population of Turkomans in Iraq as of 1994 is:
P = P (1+t) n
P = 567.000 (1+0.03296)
P = 1.764.029
This way the claim of Iraq again is proved false.
Although, all ruling parties, and present regime has concealed the Turkman population and tried to show lees then as it was, the total figure of Kirkuk, Mosul, Salah Al-Deen, Diana and their villages and including 300.000 Turkomans living in Baghdad proves that Turkomans population in Iraq is at least over 2 millions.
Turkomans who exist over thousand years have been living in northern and central part of the area. At the present, Turkomans have been living in Mosul, Arbil, Kirkuk, Diala, Salah Al-Deen and in some parts of Baghdad.
W.R. Hay who was the political governor of Arbil in the book he has written about the area says, "There are some cities on a certain strip. The people who live in those cities speak Turkman. This strip divides the two areas where in one of them the majority is Turkman in the other are Arabs. Kirkuk is the place where Turkmans are in majority. Before World War-I the population of Kirkuk was 30.000. There are many villages around the city where Turkman is spoken."
The author, in another part of the book says, " An important point is that, the two other cities where the people speak Turkman are Arbil and Altunkopru. The last one is an island on the river, little Zap. The two banks of the river are connected with a bridge. "
Al-Haydari, in his book, URBAN RENEWAL FOR QALA'A OF ARBIL, which is one of the publications of Iraqi Cultural and Youth Head Office says,
"During Ottomans, Castle (QALA'A) was a central place of Arbil people " In addition, while describing the castle he mentions Turkmans side of Arbil obviously and says so, "
Arbil Castle is in the central part of the city and consists of 3 parts, these are Saray on the east, Tophane on the south-west and Takke on north-west".
In the book of Hussai Fadhil namely " Mosul Problem" things about Kirkuk, Arbil and Turkman settlements are as follows;
"Commission has determined that the people who settled in those cities are of Turkman origin. The most popular people here are Turkmans. They talk Turkish with their family. Commission has also determined that among 7 aldermen called " Muhtar" there were five Turkmans and one of them was Turkman Kurd and another one was Jewish. The only newspaper published in Kirkuk is Turkman and official correspondence is in both Arabic and Turkman. The commission has pointed out that English political officers spoke Turkman and didn't know Arabic and Kurdish, in addition to this, Altunkopru is thoroughly Turkman, Touzkhormato is Turkman except a few Jewish and Turkman families 75% of Karatepe is Turkman or Turkoman 22% Kurd and 3% Arab. Touzkhormato and Tavuk are thoroughly Turkman but in some villages near those cities there are Kurds.
The ruling parties since 1957, have changed the administrative division and tried to destroy the demographic structure of the area. In the year of 1957 the cities where Turkomans settled were Mosul, Arbil, Kirkuk and Diala. The administrative division on that date was as following:
1. Central district and connective 3 towns and 209 villages.
2. Al-Shora district and connective 3 towns and 397 villages.
3. Amadia district and connective 4 towns and 299 villages.
4. Duhok district and connective 3 towns and 226 villages.
5. Sinjar district and connective 2 towns and 174 villages.
6. Zakho district and connective 4 towns and 256 villages.
7. Aqra district and connective 3 towns and 244 villages.
8. Shekhan district and connective 2 towns and 150 villages.
9. Talafar district and connective 2 towns and 198 villages.
(9 districts, 26 town and 1253 villages were connected to Mosul)
1. Central district and connective 1 towns and 223 villages.
2. Makhmoor district and connective 3 towns and 243 villages.
3. Rewandouz district and connective 3 towns and 252 villages.
4. Zibar district and connective 3 towns and 124 villages.
5. Koi-Sinjag district and connective 2 towns and 142 villages.
6. Shaglawa district and connective 3 towns and 176 villages.
(6 districts, 15 towns and 1151 villages were connected to ARBÃƒâ€žÃ‚Â°L)
1. Central district and connective 5 towns and 520 villages.
2. Kifri district and connective 3 towns and 318 villages.
3. Chemchemal district and connective 3 towns and 202 villages.
4. Touzkhormato district and connective 3 towns and 234 villages.
(4 districts, 14 towns and 1274 villages were connected to Kirkuk)
1. Central district and connective 2 towns and 134 villages.
2. Khalis district and connective 3 towns and 171 villages.
3. Khanagin district and connective 4 towns and 213 villages.
4. Mandali district and connective 2 towns and 84 villages.
5. Karakhan district and connective 2 towns and 116 villages.
(5 district, 13 towns and 718 villages were connected to Diala)
At that time, Salman Bak town was connected to Baghdad Central town and 33 villages were connected to it.
After 1976 the administrative division of Iraq has changed and with the new cities the number has increased to 18. As of 1992 the situation of the cities of Turkman area. :
Mosul: It has 9 district consist of Central Mosul, Hamdania, Tilkef, Sinjar, Talafer, Shihkan, Hazar, Balaj and Agra.
Arbil: It has 4 district consist of Central Arbil, Makhmoor, Sadiig and Shaglawa.
Kirkuk: It has 3 district consist of Central Kirkuk, Hawije, Dakuk.
Salah ad-Deen: It has 8 district consist of Central Tikrit, Touzkhormato, Samarra, Balad, Al-Faris, Baji, Al-Dor and Shargat.
Diala: It has 6 district consist of Central Bakuba, Karakhan (Mikdadia), Khalis, Khanagin, Balderuz and Kifri.